The Language of Pictures in Print Media Advertising

The Language of Pictures in Print Media Advertising

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Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: Today we observe a development in which the role of language is steadily decreasing whereas the impact of pictures is increasing. This goes hand in hand with a development in which information relies more and more on visual concepts. More and more language takes the part of explaining how to read the visual presentations, more and more language takes the part of providing the background information which is necessary to understand the meaning of the visual foreground. Kress and van Leeuwen (1998) argue that Today, we seem to move towards a decrease of control over language (e.g. the greater variety of accents allowed on the public media, the increasing poblems in enforcing normative spelling), and towards an increase in codification and control over the visual (e.g. the use of image banks from which ready-made images can be drawn for the constuction of visual texts, and, generally, the effect of computer imaging technology). Although we may be aware of this tendency, we have not been taught in school how to read visual concepts and so most of us share some degree of illiteracy concerning a critical reading of information presented by images. This is remarkable because we all agree about their influence on our lives but at the same time when we do not develop analytical tools for describing what kinds of strategies, what kinds of concepts are working in visual presentations of information. We tend to overlook the importance of visual concepts simply because we generally do not know enough about their code. This paper analyses photos and language which are parts of ads, which have definitely been designed for transferring messages because they have been made to advertise one specific product. Images and the text of advertisements never are casual products like family pictures. Although the photo in the family album is coded its coding is less elaborated than the coding of pictures in ads. We have to keep in mind that many people, experts in advertising, experts in public relations were involved in the process of designing an ad before we can look at the final result. This is why ads are definitely conceptually designed because they are meant to create a specific meaning in the viewer s mind. It is a truism that no visual concept, no photo of an ad was chosen by chance. Photographs and language of ads are more likely to have been carefully constructed and selected according to the meaning they are supposed to create. This is why the analysis of ads provides an extremely effective means for the deciphering of the constructive code behind them. A second important reason for the analysis of ads is that our present culture is a culture which is heavily influenced by ads. On television, in the cinema, in the newspaper, in videoclips, on walls, on cars; ads are surrounding us in contemporary society. To say it with the words of Guy Cook (1992): In contemporary capitalist society, advertising is everywhere. We cannot walk down the street, shop, watch television, go through our mail, read a newspaper or take a train without encountering it. Whether we are alone, with our friends or family, or in a crowd, advertising is always with us, if only on the label of something we are using. Given this ubiquity, it is strange that many people are reluctant to pay attention to ads. Inhaltsverzeichnis:Table of Contents: 1.Introduction5 1.1The importance of pictures5 1.2Reasons for the analysis of ads5 1.3Methodology6 2.Theory7 2.1Semiotics8 2.2Van Gogh and Critical Discourse Analysis9 2.3The creation of signs and their meaning10 2.4Coding and non - linear Reading ofPictures10 2.5Vectors11 2.6Transactional Processes13 2.7Reactional processes14 2.8The difference between man and woman in reactional processes14 2.9The Demand16 2.10The Offer18 2.11Creating the You18 2.12The analytical process20 2.13Modality22 2.13.1Situational Modality22 2.13.2Modality of time23 2.14Classificational processes24 2.15Parallelism26 2.16Deviation and foregrounding28 2.17Anchorage29 2.18The Symbolic Attributive Process30 2.18.1The four Criteria of Symbolic Attributes30 2.19The Symbolic Suggestive Process32 2.20Embedding34 2.21Relay34 2.22Social Distance35 2.23Perspective and angle36 2.24Different forms of angles37 2.24.1Oblique and frontal angle 37 2.24.2Power and vertical angle 38 2.25Fusion40 2.26Indexical and Iconic Relationships41 2.27Arguments41 2.27.1Premises 42 2.27.2Missing Premises 42 3.Analysis44 3.1Choice of material44 4.The Helsinki Series44 5.The Helsinki Series: See Helsinki 44 5.1Description of the picture44 5.2Vectors45 5.3Situational Modality45 5.4Setting45 5.5The Reactional Process45 5.6Carriers45 5.7Symbolic Attributive Processes46 5.7.1Criteria One and Three46 5.7.2Criteria Two and Four46 5.8Sensual Modality47 5.9Signifiers and Signifieds47 5.10Fusion48 5.11Choice of angle and perspective48 5.12Head and Body Copy49 5.13Text49 5.14Metaphorical woman and setting50 5.15Parallelism50 5.15.1Parallelism of picture and text50 5.15.2Parallelism between text and picture50 5.15.3Parallelism between text and text51 5.15.4Incomplete arguments51 5.15.5The missing premises of the incomplete arguments related to seeing 51 6.The Helsinki Series: Hear Helsinki52 6.1Description of the picture52 6.2A Vector and a Reactional Process53 6.3Situational modality53 6.4Sensual modality53 6.5Setting53 6.6Carriers53 6.7The Symbolic Attributive process54 6.8The Characteristics of the Symbolic Attributive Process involved54 6.9The Symbolic Suggestive Process A Deciphering by Relay55 6.10Fusion56 6.11The you in the ad56 6.12Social Distance57 6.13Perspective and Angle57 6.14Text57 6.15Relay58 6.16The analytical process58 6.17Metaphorical Taxonomies59 6.18Missing premises59 7.Results of the Helsinki Ad Series61 7.1The Pattern of the Helsinki Ads61 7.2The elements of the Helsinki Ad Layout62 8.The Ford Ad Series: Introductory File Ad 62 8.1Modality, Iconicity, Perspective, Creating the You63 8.2Situational Modality63 8.3Taxonomies63 8.3.1Left page64 8.3.2Right page64 9.The Ford Series: Henry Ford Ad 65 9.1At the back of the Time Earth Day 2000 Issue65 9.2A Vector65 9.3Modality, Point of View, Setting65 9.3.1Situational Modality66 9.3.2Setting66 9.4Ford the Reacter66 9.5Carriers and the historical point of view in time67 9.6Symbolic Suggestiveness67 9.6.1Ford as an icon67 9.7Relay and Ford Motor Company68 9.8Relay69 9.9Text70 9.10Taxonomies on the lexical level70 9.11Subordinate Expressions related to idea 71 10.The Ford Series: Ingenuity at work 72 10.1Description72 10.2Situational Modality72 10.3Social Distance, Perspective and Angle72 10.4Reactional Processes73 10.5Analytical Features73 10.6Relay and Symbolic Suggestiveness73 10.7Metonymy and Symbolic Suggestiveness74 10.8Text74 11.The Ford Series: Concluding File Ad 75 12.The Ford Series: Job Done Ad 75 12.1Analysis of the processes working in Job Done 76 13.Results of the Ford Ad Series77 13.1The Concept of the Ford Ads77 13.2The standard elements of the layout77 13.3The Pattern of the Ford Ads78 14.Conclusion79 15.Deutsche Zusammenfassung81 15.1Vorgangsweise und Ziel81 15.2Materialauswahl82 15.3Ergebnisse83 15.3.1Helsinki Serie83 15.3.2Ford Serie83 15.4Ein Beispiel einer Werbeanalyse85 15.4.1Die Codierung von Bild und Text85 15.4.2Relay86 15.4.3Parallelismen87 15.4.4Text der Henry Ford Werbung88 15.4.5Begriffe, die sich auf Idee beziehen88 15.5Schluss89 Bibliography90This conclusion is supported by the technical equipment which is listed in the Body Copy: a™c all new DuraTorq engine for improved fuel efficiency. a™c electronic engine control (eec) minimises fuel consumption in all conditions. a™c fast warm up anbsp;...

Title:The Language of Pictures in Print Media Advertising
Author: Wilfried Pichler - 2002-03-06

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